Microraptor as a biplane

•January 25, 2007 • Leave a Comment


When the chInAchArya Xu announced his dramatic find Microraptor gui in the British tabloid something struck me as odd. One of the best preserved skeletons, the holotype, was in a very typically bird-like pose with the femur, tibia and tarso-metatarsus in Z-shaped disposition much like eagles when they are zoning in on their prey. In spite of this pose of the fossil, the chIna-s reconstructed Microraptor like “tetrapteryx” of Beebe and Gerhard Heilmann who pictured the ancestor of birds to be a 4-winged animal with splayed-out legs bearing wings. To me this was patently un-anatomical. The femoral head of a typical theropod dinosaur simply cannot splay out like that to get into the “tetrapteryx” pose picture by Xu following the old Beebe. The funny thing was that the chIna-s did this despite their fossil showing that it was not the case. Then they piled on declaring Microraptor was strictly arboreal and could not really walk on ground without damaging its feathers. In a sense, Xu and his chIna-s cannot be entirely blamed for their mistake, because reconstructing functional behavior from a skeleton, especially one preserved in 2D, without an equivalent modern analog can be difficult.

Now paleontologist Chatterjee and aeronaut Templin have claimed that dinosaur indeed glided in a pose comparable to how it was fossilized with the hind-limb feathers forming a lower aerofoil thus making it a biplane, as opposed to the monoplane morphology of Archaeopteryx and the modern birds. This is an unusual and interesting reconstruction – it is definitely far more likely than Xu’s reconstruction, but who knows if it was really so. I do think C and T are however correct when they state that the tibial feathers, which are comparable to the “trouser” like leg feathers of attacking eagles, help in streamlining the air flow around the tibial shaft. Given the presence of similar feathers in an earlier enigmatic deinonychosaur from China, Pedopenna one wonders if such a strategy of gliding using hind-limb feathers was prevalent in the earlier phase of dinosaurian flight. Of course this now needs to be reconciled with Dial’s theory of wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) as the precursor of dinosaurian flight, for which there is support from living dinosaurs like the chukar partridge. WAIR is attractive because it might explain the strategies of other terrestrial deinonychosaurs and oviraptorsaurs with asymmetric feathers on their forelimbs alone.

Our complex speculation goes thus: In the ancestor of the coelurosaur clade including the deinonychosaurs, scansoriopterygids, oviraptorosaurs and therizinosaurs (in the least) WAIR was adopted as a strategy to help running up inclines both for hunting prey or fleeing from predators up into trees. But this did not lead to flight immediately. It only favored the emergence of some arboreal theropods as a result of the tree niche being opened up due to the ability to run into them as a result of WAIR. Once in the trees the first phase appears to have involved gliding with both hand and leg features (perhaps in the biplane mode). In this phase the long tail with flight feathers was very important as a control of flight or as a pitch damper in gliding. Then came the phase like Archaeopteryx and Jinfengopteryx, where more efficient flight emerged with loss of the leg feathers but retention of the long tail as a control device. This was followed by loss of the long tail and the pygostyle-borne tail feathers as seen in some early forms like Confuciusornis.

devarAja stava or the devadeveshvara stava

•January 23, 2007 • Leave a Comment

The R^iShi of the most glorious of stava-s is puShkara; the Chandas in anuShTup and the god of gods, indra is the devatA.

varastvindra-jitAmitra- vR^itrahan-pAkashAsana | deva-deva mahAbhAga tvaM hi vardhiShNutAM gataH ||
ananta-tejo virajo yasho-vijaya vardhana | aprabhus-tvaM prabhur-nityam-uttiShTha surapUjita ||
brahmA svayumbhUr-bhagvAn-sarva-loka-pitAmahaH | rudraH pinAka-bhR^id -dR^iptash-chatasR^idvaya saMstutaH||
yogasya netA kartA cha tathA viShNururukramaH | tejaste vardhayan-tvete nityam-eva mahAbalAH ||
anAdi-nidhano devo brahmA sraShTA sanAtanaH | agnis-tejomayo bhAgo rudrAtmA pArvatI-sutaH ||
kArtikeyaH shakti-dharaH ShaD-vaktrash-cha gadAdharaH | shataM vareNyo varadas-tejo vardhayatAM vibhuH ||
devaH senApatiH skandaH sura-pravara-pUjitaH | AdityA vasavo rudrAH sAdhyA devAs-tathaashvinau ||
bhR^igur-A~Ngirasash-chaiva vishvedevA marudgaNAH | lokapAlAs-trayash-chaiva chandraH sUryo.analo.anilaH ||
devAsh-cha R^iShayash-chaiva yakSha gandharva rAkShasAH || samudrA girayash-chaiva nadyo bhUtAni yAni cha ||
tejas-tapAMsi satyaM cha lakShmIH shrIH kIrtir-eva cha | pravardhayatu tat-tejo jaya shakra shachIpate ||
tava chApi jayAn-nityaM tviha saMpadyate shubhaM | prasIda rAj~nAM viprANAM prAnAmapi sarvashaH ||
tava prasAdAt-pR^ithivI nityaM sasyavatI bhavet | shivaM bhavatu nirvighnaM shamyaM-tAmItayo bhR^ishaM ||
namaste deva-devesha namaste valasUdana | namuchighna namaste.astu sahasrAkSha shachIpate ||
sarveShAM-eva lokAnAM tvam-ekA paramA gatiH | tvam-eva pramaH prANaH sarvasyAsya jagat-pate ||
pAsho hyasi pathaH sraShTuM tvaM analpaM purandara | tvam-eva meghas-tvaM vAyus-tvaM agnir-vaidyuto.ambare ||
tvamatra medhAvi-kShiptA tvam me bAhuH pratardanaM | vajram-atulaM ghoraM ghoShavAMs-tvaM balAhakaH ||
sraShTA tvam-eva lokAnAM saMhartA chaaparajitaH | tvaM jyotiH sarvalokAnAM tvam-Adityo vibhAvasuH ||
tvaM mahad-bhUtam-AshcharyaM tvaM rAjA tvaM surottamaH | tvaM viShNus-tvaM sahasrAkShas-tvaM parAyaNaM ||
tvam-eva chaamR^itaM devas-tvaM mokShaH paramArchitaH | tvaM muhUrtaH sthitistvaM cha lavas-tvaM cha punaH kShaNaH | shuklas-tvaM bahulash-chaiva kalA kAShThA truTi-stathA ||
saMvatsarartavo mAsA rajanyash-cha dinAni cha | tvam-uttamA sa-giricharA vasuMdharA sa-bhAskaraM timiraMbaraM tathA ||
sahodadhiH sa-timi~Ngilas-tathA sahormivAn bahumakaro jhaShA-kulaH |
mahad-dashAs-tvamiha sadA cha pUjyase maharShibhir-mudita-manA maharShibhiH ||
abhiSTutaH pibasi cha somam-adhvare hutAnyapi cha havImShi bhUtaye |
tvaM vipraIH satataM ihejyase phalArthaM bhedArtheShvaShtasu balaugha gIyase tvaM ||
tvadh-detor-yajana-pArAyaNA dvijendrA-vedA~NgAnyadhi-gamayanti sarva-vedaiH |
vajrasya bhartA bhuvanasya goptA vR^itrasya hartA namucher-nihantA ||
kR^iShNe vasAno vasane mahAtmA satyAnR^ite yo vivinakti loke |
yaM vAjinaM garbhaM-apAm-surANAM vaishvAnaraM vAhanam-abhyupaiti ||
namaH sadA.asmai tridiveshvarAya lokatrayeshAya purandarAya |
ajo.avyayaH shAshvata eka-rUpo viShNur-varAhaH puruShaH purANaH ||
tvam-anatakaH sarva-haraH kR^ishAnuH sahasrashIrShA shatamanyurIDyaH |
kaviM sapta-jihvaM trAtAram-indraM savitAraM sureshaM ||
hR^idyAbhi-shakraM vR^itra-haNaM suSheNam-asmAkaM vIrA uttare bhavantu |
trAtAram-indrenriya-kAraNAtma~n-jagat-pradhAnaM cha hiraNyagarbhaM ||
lokeshvaraM deva-varaM vareNyaM chaananda-rUpaM praNatosmi nityaM |

On the samarA~NgaNa sUtradhAra: yantra-s

•January 21, 2007 • Leave a Comment

The vimAna has been noticed by many since the publication of the samarA~NgaNa sUtradhAra (SS) of the great rAja bhoja-deva paramAra. The description is certainly obscure in parts (especially given the corrupt manuscripts), but what can be made sense of in the account definitely describes a flying machine. Many years ago when we had talked about this and both Mis-creant and dvipakSha-kesha expressed their skepticism that anything like this could have ever been really mentioned in the Hindu texts. After all, they chimed, there is enough reason to believe that the vaimAnika shAstra was a hoax of a text. While I was skeptic of the vaimAnika, I did know that bhoja-deva’s work was real and so also the mention of the vimAna in it. So, I took these two to the library of Samskrit texts where I had a special inner access and showed them the text. Now many years later while planning new scripts for nATaka-s we ended up talking of it again- of course starting with the famous topic: did Hindus have an airplane?

The SS 31 clearly mentions a ambarchAri-vimAna in addition to several other mysterious yantras which apparently include “robots” like dvArapAla yantra, yodhA yantra and gaja-yantra. In describing the vimAna the SS states the following SS 31.95-98:

laghu-dAru-mayaM mahAviha~NgaM dR^iDha-sushliShTa-tanuM vidhAya tasya |
udare rasa-yantraM-AdhIta jvalAdhAram-adho.asya chAgni-pUrNaM ||
tatrArUDhaH pUruShas-tasya pakSha-dvandvoch-chAla-proj-jhitenAnilena |
supta-svAntaH pAradasyAsya shaktyA chitraM kurvan-nambare yAti dUraM ||
itthmeva suramandira-tulyaM sa~nchalatya-laghu dAru vimAnam |
AdadhIta vidhinA chaturo.antas-tasya pArada-bhR^itAn dR^iDha-kumbhAn ||
ayaH kapAlAhita-mandavahni-pratapta-tat-kumbha-bhuvA guNena |
vyomno jhagityAbharaNa tvameti santatapta-garjad-rasa-rAja-shaktyA ||

From the description its fairly clear, even factoring in the mention of rasa, that it is not a vimAna flying by mantra prayoga, but a real mechanical yantra. Amongst the scholars the learned VRR Dikshitar in his book on war in ancient India, and the great V. Raghavan in his essay on Hindu machines, are inclined to believe that vimAna was a real flying machine. But the other erudite scholar Vasudevasharan Agarwala who re-edited the SS with a new manuscript believes it is imaginary. While I fully admit that the description given by the king can hardly be used to make a vimAna today, one can glean some prominent features of it:
1) It was made of light wood- at least conceptually it was something light so as to fly. 2) It had a mercury-containing device in its “belly” and fire and at the rear end. 3) Its body was well-welded (or firmly joined) and had two wings and resembled a large bird. 4) Repeatedly the king says it runs by the “power” of mercury, which is described as contained in four firm pots/vessels. These are heated by a slow fire from an iron heating vessel. “Powered by mercury it roars into the sky”.

Now the SS is fairly serious about this mercury power business: Immediately after the vimAna, king bhoja mentions a yantra powered by heated mercury again, which is used for duShTa-gajochchATana (over-throwing of enemy elephants). It is supposed to create a roar like nR^isimha. The possibility of engine using mercury comes to mind – between the 1930-1950 there were experimental engine designs (The William Emmet engines) using Hg as the working fluid used in power plants. While they were more efficient than the steam turbines, cost and hazards of mercury put an end to the endeavors. It should be remarked that one of the early models of James Watt’s rotary engines also used Hg as a working fluid. However, the possibility of such devices powering flight is considered remote by engineers.

Having reached the end of this line of inquiry, we looked at comparative evidence from other texts and civilization. In the west the invention of the engine is normally attributed to a yavana sage Hero of Alexandria who composed on mechanics around 50-100 CE. One of his devices is the aeolipile, which literally means the door of wind (Aeolus and his 11 sons the Aeolii being wind deities). Interestingly, many of the machines of Hero are parallel to that of bhoja’s yantra-s. His collections include water machines (Pneumatica), machines for creating wonders in temples like opening temple doors, statues that pour libations etc. (Automata), figures the move and perform drama (automata theater), directions for architects, including means of lifting heavy objects (Mechanica) and siege and war machines (Belopoeica). Likewise amongst bhoja-s yantra-s we have: 1) the vAri-yantra running on water flow, 2) yantra-s for creating adbhuta-s (wonders) like showing fire in water 3) “Robotic” parrot, elephant and men and women act together, automatic beating of drums. 4) A remote controlled door-keeper for the night who blocks thieves. 5) uchChraya-yantra: a mechanical lift for raising objects. 6) Siege machines for defending forts and robotic door guards.

These parallels are reminiscent of such other similarities between the Greek and Hindu worlds. In particular the use of wonders in temples, which appears to be very important for Hero of Alexandria, is a critical aspect of the Neo-Platonic religious thought (theurgy), along with temple construction and image-veneration. This cultural element has so much in parallel with India that it is not surprising to find yantra-s in a Hindu work that otherwise deals with religious architecture in large measure. Another point to note in this context is the parallel between Hero’s formula for the area of a triangle and brahmagupta’s generalization for the the cyclic quadrilateral. Thus, irrespective of their place of origin, we may surmise that ideas for mechanical devices, along with many other scientific, pagan religious, cultural and mathematical ideas, were very much a part of the shared ancient thought system that encompassed bhArata and Greece. Given the aeolipile, it is not impossible that Hindu-s devised some version of an engine (perhaps rotary) with Hg as the working fluid (the howls of the skeptics and the toxicity of mercury notwithstanding). While I am personally skeptical about how such a device might have powered flight, we should at least credit bhoja with a rather prescient bit of thinking: using an engine to power an aircraft.

Finally, one yantra mentioned by king bhoja caught my attention — the sUryAdi-graha-gati-pradarshana-paraM gola-bhramaNaM.
The king says (SS 31.61-62): golash-cha sUchi-vihitaH sUryAdInAM pradakShiNaM |
pari-bhrAmyaty-ahorAtraM grahANAM darshayan gatiM |
[Images of] The sun and the planets are made to revolve without any connection and these revolutions show the occurrence of day and night and the motions of planets. Thus, bhoja-deva describes a yantra that simulates the solar system. This immediately brings to mind the recently described analysis of an ancient artifact that was discovered in a ship-wreck over 100 years ago- the Antikythera mechanism from Greece. It is interpreted as a mechanical device to simulate the sun, moon and probably planets and successfully compute eclipses. That, such devices were used in the yavana world, is confirmed by a statement by the Roman author Cicero who saw the device captured from Archimedes by the Roman general Marcellus. In his de Natura Deorum Cicero mentions that his friend Posidonius had made a machine in which “each one of the revolutions of which brings about the same movement in the sun and moon and five wandering stars as is brought about each day and night in the heavens.” This last statement is indeed reminiscent of the record of bhoja-deva.

All things taken together, Neo-Platonic Western Eurasia and bhArata at the time of bhoja-deva’s era were “technologically” rather developed (also note the remarkable description of the cranial surgery performed on bhoja-deva himself). But in both places the violent visitations of the Abrahamistic madness obliterated or defaced these old worlds. This is a point often overlooked by many, especially in the West.

The silent return

•January 20, 2007 • Leave a Comment

On the path of nothingness we returned;
before us stood the bright prajApati,
with rudra’s bright dart pinning him to the welkin.

In one hand we held an iron trident,
in the other we held a skull.
Beyond the carcass of prajapati
shone his wain, with the ruddy gem in it struck.

Further ahead shone the six mothers,
of our patron god with the spear.
Around us stood the city’s denizens.

We were reminded of the bygone days.
that strangely to us seemed so near.
The prodigious one did aim,
a kite in the firmament to place.

The muni batted an eyelid not,
and like the wise vainaemoinen
pronounced in the inner mind:
“this contraption is ain’t flying”.

This wisdom struck us not then.
We unheedingly declared then
that we seek not to get
worthless basalt home
in place of metal that we sought.

Chasing phantasms and black shadows,
we wandered on the plains of khANDava,
thrilled fleetingly by the merriment
of our blithe fellow-farers,
verily like the Lankan prince
in the pleasure house in bhArata.

Chasing that dark shade,
down the dark alley we coursed.
At the bend in the path
concealing the grim unknown,
the shade was unmasked!

Out came the rAkShasi,
indeed laughing hideously
even as jarA in a magadhan midden.

Our reverie broke.
The wayfarers of uncontrolled gaiety
receded into the chaos,
even as the sUtaputra and suyodhana
were seen vanishing
into the gape of vishvarUpa.

Alone on the path of sorrow,
we stood staring–
the slow changing heavens
in the daily circuits.
The bleak shriek of vAta and
the rAkShasi beyond.

dIvAkIrtya-s, eclipses and severed heads

•January 18, 2007 • Leave a Comment

We saw how the aitareya brAhmaNa describes the divAkIrtya-s as the frame of solstice points that “holds up” the sun. The pa~nchavimsha brAhman 4.6 describes the divAkIrtya-s, just as the taittirIya and kaTha texts, in the context of the solstice rite but also adds a second context: namely that of the eclipse. It repeats a famous tale of the dAnava svarbhAnu (PB4.6.13-15): ” The demonic svarbhAnu seized the sun with darkness. The gods drove the darkness with the dIvAkIrtya. The divAkIrtya-s are the rays of the sun, by means of the rays they indeed take hold of the sun.” The it states that the bhrAja and AbhrAja sAmans remove the darkness from the upper part of the sun, the vikarNa and mahAdivAkIrtya from the middle part and the bhAsa from the lower part. This suggests a progressive movement of the eclipse with different parts of the sun liberated successively from it. The term svarbhAnu is a very overt reference to the solar eclipse because the same term is used from the earliest times (the atri maNDala of the RV) to describe the eclipse which was observed and predicted by the atri-s using their quadrants (turIya in the RV). Following the dIvakIrtya-eclipse connection of the sAmavedic tradition through other vedic texts we move into a series of more cryptic allusions that might provide parallels with later day pauranic mythology.

So far in studying the dIvakIrtya-s we had not alluded to the evidence from the shukla yajurvedic tradition. We find a rather notable allusion to it the shatapatha brAhmaNa in 4.1.5 of the shatapatha brAhmaNa. This section of the SB first begins by mentioning of how the bhR^igu-s and angirasa-s saw the svargo loka. It goes on to describe the restorative act of the ashvin-s by providing the earliest version of the famous tale of chyavana, sukanyA and sharyAta mAnava in the context of the offering made to the ashvin-s (SB 4.1.5.1-14). This offering is related to the ashvins as the divine physicians restoring the severed head of the yaj~na. The blindness of chyavana followed by his restoration is, at its heart, a solar restoration myth superimposed on the the history of the bhArgava-s. The ashvin offerings in this context are connected to the divAkIrtya-s that restore the head to the yaj~na as per SB 4.1.5.15:

vishIrShNA vai yaj~nena yajadhva iti kathaM vishIrShNetyupa nu nau hvayadhvam atha vo vakShyAva iti tatheti tA upAhvayanta tAbhyAm etam AshvinaM graham agR^ihNastAvadhvaryU yaj~nasyAbhavatAM tAvetad yaj~nasya shiraH pratyadhattAM tad adastad divAkIrtyAnAm brAhmaNe vyAkhyAyate yathA tad yaj~nasya shiraH pratidadhatus-tasmAd-eSha stute bahiShpavamAne graho gR^ihyate stute hi bahiShpavamAna AgacatAm

Then in SB 4.1.5.17 the tale of yet another bhArgava, dadhichi is mentioned in relation to the restoration of his head by the ashvin-s in the context of the madhuvidyA. Thus, the divAkIrtya-s are here cryptically linked to the restoration of the sun’s brightness by the ashvin-s. Thus, the severed head of the yaj~na in the pravargya might also be linked to solar restoration.

This leads us to the those mysterious mantras of RV 10.170/171 which clears some of this up: The vikarNa sAman amongst the divAkIrtya-s is based on RV 10.170.1. This sUktaM is noteworthy in some other respects: 1) It uses the word bhrAjaH which corresponds to the name of one of the divAkIrtya-s. 2) Prominent words in this sUktaM like s [vi]bhrAT, bhrAjaH, jyotiH, divaH, ayuH, satya, dharman occur as [or as parts of] the magical stobhas of the divAkIrtya-s. 3) This is one of those relatively few mantra-s to the sun [sUrya] in the RV. 4) It has the word asura in a negative connotation– such a negative usage of asura is rare in the RV and occurs elsewhere in the context of sUrya and the eclipse (svarbhAnu is also called asura).

When we look more carefully at the second mantra some interesting elements come to light:

vibhrAD bR^ihat subhR^itaM vAja-sAtamaM dharman divo dharuNe satyam arpitam |
amitrahA vR^itrahA dasyuhantamaM jyotir jaj~ne asurahA sapatnahA ||
We note that first hemistich contains the words subhR^itaM, dharman, dharuNe, all implying bearing, propping or supporting of the heavens, which relates with the basic theme of the divAkIrtya-s as a prop of sUrya as described so vividly in the aitareya brAhmaNa. In the second hemistich where we encounter the phrase “jyotir jaj~ne asurahA …” i.e. he generated a light that smote the asura. This atypical use of the negative asura along with its smiting reminds one of the the sUktaM of atri (RV 5.40) where the negative asura is repeatedly used to describe the solar eclipse. These observations together suggest that the sUktaM RV 10.170 comprised a “proto-divAkIrtyA”, which already was linked to elements seen in the classical divAkIrtya-s.

Interestingly, the very next sUktaM RV 10.171 of iTant bhArgava describes the severed head of makha. In this sUktaM in the second mantra indra is said to taken away the skin from the head of makha: “tvaM makhasya dodhataH shiro .ava tvacho bharaH” (RV 10.171.2). The 4th mantra is again pretty striking:

tvaM tyamindra sUryaM pashchA santaM puras kR^idhi | devAnAM chit tiro vasham || (RV 10.171.4)
Bring, indra, the sun to the front that is lingering behind, hidden against the wishes of the sun.

This finally completes a rather tangled path — the itAnt bhArgava sUktaM is recording an eclipse with two allegories: 1) the skin being taken of the head of makha. The head of makha is the severed head of the sacrifice that became the sun as per the brAhmaNas. 2) The sun being hidden against the wishes of the god. Thus, juxtaposition of the makha and the vibhrAD hymn in the RV maNDala 10 is unlikely a chance event — it follows the real tradition recorded in the shatapatha brAhmaNa 4.1.5 where the head of makha/yaj~na is restored by the divAkIrtya-s.

So the tangled contextual information suggests that in the vedic mind several different “regenerative” events used a similar set of motifs for description and ritual enactment: 1) The regeneration of the sun after sinking in winter in the northern latitudes of the early Indo-Europeans. 2) The restoration of the sun after an eclipse. 3) The restoration of the world axis, the frame of the sun after a precessional shift. Hence, not surprisingly, the sauchika agni hymn which concerns itself with precession also introduces the important number of the Saros cycle in a cryptic way.

Finally, this motif of the severed head in relation to the eclipse lingers on in the Hindu world, reappearing in the purANas as head of rAhu who eats the sun. Here again the head of the asura is severed by viShNu, just as indra slays svarbhAnu in the veda. We suspect that there was a para-vedic viShNu-centric Indo-Aryan stream where the myth of rAhu arose from the same old base motifs found in the Indo-European world.

mantra of trailokyavijayA

•January 16, 2007 • Leave a Comment

The mantra of the goddess trailokyavijayA is provided by the yuddha-jayArNava tantraM. A somewhat corrupt version of this tantra is incorporated into the agni purANa. Stand-alone manuscripts of the YJA also exist, though they have not been edited or published. In addition to the version of the agni-purANa I had access to a hand-written transcript on paper. The Dutch explorers have recovered a corrupt version of the same in their collection of Hindu mantras known as stuti-s and stava-s from Indonesia (now only surviving in Bali). All these with a single input from oral tradition help to obtain the critical version of the trailokyavijayA mantra as per the available traditions. trailokyavijayA is meditated upon as being deep blue in color, having 20 hands, and standing on corpses of slaughtered foes.

OM hUM kShUM hrUM OM namo bhagavatI daMShTriNI bhImavaktre mahograrUpe hili hili raktanetre kili kili mahAnisvane kulu OM vidyuj-jihve kulu OM nir-mAMse kaTa kaTa gonasAbharaNe chili chili shava-mAlA-dhAriNI drAvaya OM mahAraudrI sArdra-charmakR^itkR^itAmbare vijR^imbha OM nR^itya asilatAdhAriNI bhrukuTI-kR^itApA~Nge viShama-netra-kR^itAnane vasA-medho-vilipta-gAtre kaha 2 OM hasa 2 kruddha 2 OM nIla-jImUta-varNe megha-mAlA-dhAriNI prajvala OM GhaNTA-ki~Nki~Ni vibhUShita-sharIre OM simhisthe aruNavarNe OM hrAm hrIM hrUM raudra-rUpe hUM hrIM klIM OM hrIM hUM OM AkarSha OM dhUna 2 oM he haH khaH vajriNi hUM kShUM kShAM krodha-rUpiNI prajjvala 2 oM bhIma-bhIShaNe bhindi OM mahAkAye Chindi oM karAlinI kiTi 2 mahA-bhUta-mAtaH sarva-duShTa-nivAriNI jaye OM vijaye OM trailokyavijaye hUM phaT svAhA

indra-maNi

•January 15, 2007 • Leave a Comment
 
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