smArta-kaula intersections

The uttarabhAga of the brahmANDa purANa contains a large body of shrIkula tAntrika material. Some tAntrika-s mention that this section contains the dharma for the kaula practitioner. Other tAntrika-s hold that the tame views presented here are still a sign of duality which a genuine practitioner of kulAchara might transcend. Clearly, the emphasis here is on activities for a smArta brAhmaNa or one from any of the other varNa-s who is affiliated with smArta authority, but wishes to perform sAdhana-s and upAsana-s prescribed in the kaula shAstra-s. This is thus the bR^ihaspati dharma as adapted for a smArta practicing the tAntrika krama-s of the said shAstra-s. This should not be confused with the activities of a sAdhaka who *is* a kaula and considers other shAstra-s as pashu shAstra-s. For example regarding liquors we encounter the following injunctions:

paiShTikaM tAlajaM kairaM mAdhUkaM guDasaMbhavam |
kramAn-nyUnataraM pApaM tadarddhArddhArddhatastathA ||
kShatriyAdi trivarNAnAm AsavaM peyam uchyate |
strINAm api tR^itIyAdi peyaM syAd brAhmaNIM vinA ||

The liquors are generally classified as a beer, toddy, coconut toddy, mead and sugar cane liquor. A brAhmaNa male is prohibited from drinking these. A woman from the remaining three varNa-s might drink liquors except beer and toddy. Here again a brAhmaNa woman is proscribed from drinking any liquor.

The bR^ihaspati dharma recognizes that in kaula rituals liquor is used. But here again it is rather clear regarding a smArta brAhmaNa being forbidden from using it:
lakShmIH sarasvatI gaurI chaNDikA tripurAMbikA |
bhairavo bhairavI kAlI mahAshAstrI cha mAtaraH ||
anyAshcha shaktayas tAsAM pUjane madhu shasyate |
brAhmaNastu vinA tena yajed vedA~Nga pAragaH ||

The shakti-s mentioned include tripurAMbikA, the bhairava-bhairavI yAmala and kAlI among others, covering the shrIkula, kAlikula and generically the bhairvAchara derived from the bhairavatantra-s.

The same bR^ihaspati smR^iti also recognizes the fact that in the kula ritual maithuna needs to be observed. In this context it gives two shloka mantra-s. The first of these to viShNu and lakShmI can be used by one even without shAstra-j~nAna so that his acts of maithuna become mantra-karman-s:
sarvAtmako vAsudevaH puruShastu purAtanaH |
iyaM hi mUlaprakR^itir lakShmIH sarva-jagat-prasUH |
pa~ncApa~ncAtma-tR^iptyarthaM mathanaM kriyatetarAm |
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A person well-educated in the shAstra-s might observe maithuna as a part of kula worship; however, only with the svastrI and not on prohibited days using the second mantra:
iyam aMbA jagad-dhAtrI puruSho .ayaM sadAshivaH |
pa~ncaviMshati tattvAnAM prItaye mathyate ‘dhunA ||

The possibility of animal sacrifice and meat consumption in the context of bhairavAchara is recognized by similarly providing mantra-s to make them permissible acts. But here again meat is proscribed for a brAhmaNa except in life and death circumstances. But the slaughter of the pashu for the shAkta ritual might be done by the other varNa-s affiliated with smArta tradition using the shloka mantra if he wishes to be free of pApa:
shivodbhavam idam piNDamatyatha shivatAM gatam |
udbudhyasva pasho tvaM hi nAshivaH sa~nchivo hyasi ||
IshaH sarva-jagat-kartA prabhavaH pralayas tathA |
yato vishvAdhiko rudrastena rudro .asi vai pasho ||

While retaining the proscriptions on brAhmaNa-s while engaging the kula rituals, this bR^ihaspati smR^iti is unorthodox in certain ways i.e. it makes attempts to accommodate Aryanizing tribals who build irrigation works, temples of shiva and viShNu and set up agrahAra-s. The smR^iti gives an example of such a meritorious tribal woman who was even given the dIkSha of the shatarudrIya by a smArta brAhmaNa.
AM hrIM kroM sa~Nketayoginyai namaH ||

~ by mAnasa-taraMgiNI on July 13, 2009.

 
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