The accomodation of women and shUdra-s in the pAshupata system

As we noted before the pAshupata tradition was originally strictly restricted to brAhmaNa males who were educated in the veda-s. They were celibate ascetics who kept away from regular social interaction. But by the time of the vAmana purANa we note that the pAshupata-s were accommodating shUdra-s (VaP 6.92). This is suggested by the mahAvratin dhanada having the shUdra arNodara as a disciple. From inscriptional evidence in the southern country we note that women and shUdra-s are included amongst patrons of the pAshupata maTha-s. Is there any other evidence for their accommodation? It is seen that secondary shloka texts, resembling the vedic texts to which the shUdra-s had no adhikAra, were composed in the paurANic period when the shUdra-s were being accommodated. These texts provide the same material as the vedic mantra-s on which they are modeled making their purport accessible to the 4th varNa. Let us consider some examples briefly that are provided by lakShmIdhara and the li~Nga purANa.. The first of this is a stand in for the pa~nchabrahma-mantra-s. Only 3 brahma mantra-s are represented here. I discussed this with R1’s. He speculated that perhaps the bahurUpI and rudra-gayatrI are genuinely vaidika and cannot be paraphrased as paurAnic shloka-s. Alternatively, their paraphrase has been lost.

vande.ham devam IshAnaM sarveshaM sarvagaM prabhum |
om IshAna namaste .astu mahAdeva namo .astu te ||1||
namo .astu sarva-vidyAnAm IshAna parameshvara |
namo .astu sarva-bhUtAnAm IshAna vR^iSha-vAhana ||2 ||
brahmaNo .adhipate tubhyaM brahmaNe brahma-rUpiNe |
namo brahmAdhipataye shivaM me .astu sadAshiva ||3 ||
o~NkAra-mUrte devesha sadyojAta namo namaH |
prapadye tvAM prapanno .asmi sadyojAtAya vai namaH ||4 ||
abhave cha bhave tubhyaM tathA nAtibhave namaH |
bhavod-bhava bhaveshAna mAM bhajasva mahAdyute ||5 ||
vAmadeva namas tubhyaM jyeShThAya varadAya cha |
namo rudrAya kAlAya kalanAya namo namaH ||6 ||
namo vikaraNAyaiva kAlavarNAya varNine |
balAya balinAM nityaM sadA vikaraNAya te ||7 ||
balapramathanAyaiva baline brahma-rUpiNe |
sarva-bhUteshvareshAya bhUtAnAM damanAya cha ||8||
manonmanAya devAya namas tubhyaM mahAdyute |
vAmadevAya vAmAya namastubhyaM mahAtmane ||9||
jyeShThAya chaiva shreShThAya rudrAya varadAya cha |
kAla-hantre namas tubhyaM namas tubhyaM mahAtmane ||10||

Similarly the following shloka-s attributed to brahmA are a shatarudrIya substitute for the 4th varNa to use. It has high frequency of overlap with the names of rudra in the shatrarudrIya and also includes an abbreviated paraphrase of the pa~nchabrahma:

namaste kAlakAlAya namaste rudra manyave |
namaH shivAya rudrAya sha~NkarAya shivAya te ||1||
ugro .asi sarva-bhUtAnAM niyantAsi shivo .asi naH |
namaH shivAya sharvAya sha~NkarAyArtti-hAriNe ||2||
mayaskarAya vishvAya viShNave brahmaNe namaH |
antakAya namas tubhyam umAyAH pataye namaH ||3||
hiraNyabAhave sAkShAd dhiraNyapataye namaH |
sharvAya sarvarUpAya puruShAya namo namaH ||4||
sadasadvyakti-hInAya mahataH kAraNAya te |
nityAya vishvarUpAya jAyamAnAya te namaH ||5||
jAtAya bahudhA loke prabhUtAya namo namaH |
rudrAya nIlarudrAya kadrudrAya prachetase ||6||
kAlAya kAlarUpAya namaH kAlA~NgahAriNe |
mIDhuShTamAya devAya shitikaNThAya te namaH ||7||
mahIyase namas tubhyaM hantre devAriNAM sadA |
tArAya cha sutArAya tAraNAya namo namaH ||8||
harikeshAya devAya shaMbhave paramAtmane |
devAnAM shaMbhave tubhyaM bhUtAnAM shaMbhave namaH ||9||
shambhave haimavatyAsh cha manyave rudra-rUpiNe |
kapardine namastubhyaM kAlakaNThAya te namaH ||10||
hiraNyAya maheshAya shrIkaNThAya namo namaH |
bhasmadigdha-sharIrAya daNDamuNDIshvarAya cha ||11 ||
namo hrasvAya dIrghAya vAmanAya namo namaH |
nama ugra-trishUlAya ugrAya cha namo namaH ||12||
bhImAya bhImarUpAya bhIma-karmakR^itAya te |
agrevadhAya vai bhUtvA namo dUrevadhAya cha ||13||
dhanvine shUline tubhyaM gadine haline namaH |
chakriNe varmiNe nityaM daityAnAM karmabhedine ||14||
sadyAya sadya-rUpAya sadyojAtAya te namaH |
vAmAya vAma-rUpAya vAmanetrAya te namaH ||15||
aghora-rUpAya vikaTAya vikaTasharIrAya te namaH |
puruSha-rUpAya puruShaika-tatpuruShAya vai namaH ||16||
puruShArtha-pradAnAya pataye parameShThine |
IshAnAya namas tubhyam IshvarAya namo namaH ||17||
brahmaNe brahmarUpAya namaH sAkShAchChivAya te |.5

This strange mantra is believed to be a rudra gAyatrI substitute althought it does not retain meter and has a grammatically strange form as it stands:
IshAnAya kadrudrAya prachetase tryaMbakAya sharvAya tanno rudraH prachodayAt ||

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~ by mAnasa-taraMgiNI on August 3, 2009.

 
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