The songs of shunaHshepa and nArada
In the nocturnal ritual of the soma rite 27th and 28th sAmavedic stuti-s are described below. These songs are sung sometime between 12.30-1.00 AM. The sAmavedic mantra-s have the following musical pattern with respect to the three sAmavedin ritualists:
The prastAva is sung by the prastotA, the udgItha by the udgAtA, the pratihAra by the pratihartA, the upadrava by the udgAtA, and the nidhana by all three.
prastAva: yoge-yoge tavA hA vu stArAM |
udgIthA: O jevAje havAmAhA e hU vA au ho vA |
pratihAra: sAkhAya indraM UtAyA e hU vA au ho vA |
upadrava: O khAya yA hU vA au ho vA |
nidhana: dram Utaye ||
prastAva: A ghA gamad yadI hA vu shrAvAt |
udgIthA: O hasriNIbhir UtA yi bhA e hU vA au ho vA |
pratihAra: vAjebhir Upa no hAvAm hU vA au ho vA |
upadrava: O jebhir A hU vA au ho vA |
nidhana: pa no havAM ||
prastAva: anu pratnasyau hA vu kasaH |
udgIthA: O ve tUvIpratA yin nArAM hU vA au ho vA |
pratihAra: yAn te pUrvaM pitA hUvA e hU vA au ho vA |
upadrava: On te pUrvaM hU vA au ho vA |
nidhana: pitA hUve ||
The lyrics are based on the following mantra-s of the shunaHshepa the son of the fallen bhArgava ajigarta composed after he was adopted by vishvAmitra:
yoge-yoge tavastaraM | vAje-vAje havAmahe | sakhAya indram Utaye ||
In every junction of life, in every booty-winning contest, like [calling] friends we call the mightiest indra for aid.
A ghA gamad yadi shravat | sahasriNIbhir UtibhiH | vAjebhir upa no havam ||
If he shall hear our call, he shall come to our call with a 1000 aids, conquering booty.
anu pratnasyaukasaH | huve tuvipratiM naram | yaM te pUrvam pitA huve ||
I invoke the irresistible warrior of the primal fortress, you whom father [vishvAmitra] had formerly invoked.
prastAva: indra suteShu someShu |
udgIthA: O tUM punAyiSha ukthiyAM vide vArddhAsya dakShasya |
pratihAra: mahaM hAyi ShaH |
upadrava: O ham hi ShaH |
nidhana: O yi DA ||
prastAva: sa prathame viyOmAnI |
udgIthA: O vAnAM sAdane vR^idhAs supArAs sUshravas-tamaH |
pratihAra: samapsUjIt |
upadrava: O mapsujA yit |
nidhana: O yi DA ||
prastAva: tamu hUve vAjasAtAyA yi |
udgIthA: OndrAM bhArAya shuShmINAM bhavA nAs sUmne antamaH |
pratihAra: sakhA vArddhA yi |
upadrava: O khA vR^idhA yi |
nidhana: O yi DA ||
The lyrics are based on the following mantra-s of the great vipra nArada of the clan of the kANva-s
indraH suteShu someShu kratum punIta ukthyam |
vide vR^idhasya dakShaso mahAn hi ShaH ||
indra, at the soma libations, makes himself clear to receive the chants; he is known to be of high skill because he is the great one!
sa prathame vyomani devAnAM sadane vR^idhaH |
supAraH sushravastamaH sam apsujit ||
He became mighty in the primal sky, the seat of the deva-s, all-transcending, of great fame, conquering all waters.
tam ahve vAjasAtaya indram bharAya shuShmiNam |
bhavA naH sumne antamaH sakhA vR^idhe ||
Him I call for the conquest of booty, for the battle [I call] the impetuous indra; be close to us in favorable disposition, a friend for our augmentation.
Note that in the first of the above songs the upadrava incorporates a modified version of the first pada of the pratihAra. In the second song the upadrava repeats of the whole pratihAra pada in a modified form. All these sAman-s are followed by the recitation of shastra-s by the brAhmaNAchChaMsin, which include the above R^ik-s and several other R^iks with the terminal triplications and the interspersion of the shOMsAvOM incantation. At the end of each shastra that follows the song a soma libation is made with the below mantra-s which begin with the syllable ‘pro’. After the first of the above songs and the associated shastra:
pro droNe harayaH karmAgman punAnAsa R^ijyanto abhUvan |
indro no asya pUrvyaH papIyAd dyukSho madasya somyasya rAjA ||
Forth to the droNa-kalasha the tawny stream flows for the ritual, and purified flows straight ahead. May indra, heavenly king, as in the past, drink of this exhilarating soma.
After the second:
progrAm pItiM vR^iShNa iyarmi satyAm prayai sutasya haryashva tubhyam |
indra dhenAbhir iha mAdayasva dhIbhir vishvAbhiH shachyA gR^iNAnaH ||
To make you start [for our ritual], I offer you a strong, true libation, the manly one, whom the tawny horses carry to the [soma] pressing. Here, O indra, be delighted in our milk-effused soma offerings, as we offer recitations skillfully crafted with all our intelligence.
With this concludes the offerings to indra.
This is followed by the making of the special seat with bricks and cushions for the hotA to the west of his fire altar. Then the sAmavedin ritualists sing the 9-fold rahasya gANa to agni, uSha-s and the ashvinau. This followed by the recitation of 1000 mantra-s to the ashvin-s with the Ashvina offering ordained by our ancient ancestor chyavAna.