Demographic fate of Hindus in the US

•November 2, 2007 • Leave a Comment

A friend brought to attention some interesting statistics of ABCDs’ ethnicity-specific sexual preferences. This combined with other cultural trends allows some estimates of the general future of the Indic populations in mlechChadesha. The table below summarizes the results from the most recent US census data.

Percentage of ABCD men marrying women of a given ethnicity:

Hindu: 73.3
White: 18.5
Hispanic: 3.4
East Asians: 2.7
Others: 1.6
Blacks: 0.5

Percentage of ABCD women marrying men of a given ethnicity:

Hindu: 77.9
White: 18.9
East Asians: 1.7
Hispanic: 1.4
Black: 1.4
Others: 0.9

At least 20-25% of ABCDs mate with people of other races (ethnicities). More generally, ABCDs tend to show lower levels of admixtures with other races than some other prominent neo-immigrant groups such Chinese, Koreans and Japanese. Even if we normalize by the fact that Whites are a majority in the US, the ABCDs are still preferentially mating with Whites and avoiding mating with Blacks and Hispanics, if they mate outside their ethnicity. With about 18-19% of the ABCDs mating with Whites it is clear that nearly 1/5 of the Hindu population will acquire a White identity and gradually merge with the ‘majority’ block of the US. This majority block will generally retain the cultural memes of its dominant White core. The Indic population being genetically closer to White rather than East-Asian populations will merge relatively seamlessly in phenotypic terms, at best darkening the skin color a bit. However, the merger of the East Asians with the Whites, which is also rampantly underway might stir the phenotypic pot of the majority block a bit. The ABCDs who merge with the Whites will be joined by the smaller number of Isaistic converts from India who will naturally acquire a White memetic identity. The Indian converts to the other Abrahamism will naturally merge with the larger pan-Islamic identity.

The remaining endogamous ABCDs will form a distinct population which will remain quintessentially ABCD – deracinated Hindus drawn towards all kinds of memes wafting into their cranial recesses in the liberal academic environments they live in. In a sense they will form a shadow culture of the White-based majority block: aping all the cultural elements of the majority block, while at the same time being paradoxically obsessed with their independent racial identity (some may call this “brown” to fit in the chromatic spectrum of racial identity prevalent in the US). This group is likely to get enriched by the darker skinned elements of ABCDs population.

Since marrying White is a common route to enter to power structure of the majority block, the pure ABCD population will have a constant drain to the majority block if not reinforced by new FOBs from the desh.

Of course I will continue the remarkable tale of the kR^iShNa shUdra next.

Genes affecting human intelligence

•October 31, 2007 • Leave a Comment

Most people know that there is something tangible called intelligence. Ancient Hindus saw it as a tangible entity called buddhi, while modern psychometrics uses the concept of general intelligence called g. In the modern theory it is proposed that irrespective of the domain of specialization, and despite the presence of general abilities such as verbal ability, or spatial ability or numerical ability that contribute to intelligence, the main common determinant of intelligence is this generic factor termed g. IQ tests are designed to be as good a proxy for this g as possible. Generally this theory of g also makes intuitive sense and fits in with our anecdotal observations: Most scientists of the type who need to use their mental faculties for their profession have IQ higher than 135. There is normal distribution of IQ, which fits well with the anecdotal observation that the majority of people in the population fall around a certain average intelligence, a yard-stick used for educational testing. There are few highly intelligent people in any population. g is a quantitative trait with broad sense heritability H^2~0.5-0.8 showing that it is substantially genetically determined. It is correlated with brain anatomy like frontal lobe gray matter volume and brain physiology like glucose utilization. Thus, the available evidence strongly supports intelligence as a biologically determined trait with a strong genetic component.

So what are the genes that affect human intelligence? As I was studying brain function genes in context of the pathogen-response of mammalian hosts to a well-known vertebrate parasite, I was distracted to survey intelligence related genes. I gathered a bit of biology in this regard mainly for my own edification, but in course of a conversation with R decided that it might be worthwhile putting down some of it here in the near future.

A brief summary:
CHRM2: The cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor gene encodes a 7 TM receptor of acetylcholine expressed in the brain (and heart). This gene shows a highly significant association with intelligence with the strongest association seen with the SNP: rs324650. The T allele (as against the ancestral A allele) of this gene was found to correlate with an increase in what the authors call performance IQ by about 4.6 points. This SNP is seen in the 3’UTR intron suggesting that its biological action is regulatory, probably at the transcriptional level. In studied human populations the T allele shows about 91% frequency in Chinese and Japanese, 47% in White Americans, and 27% in West Africans.

DTNBP1: Several SNPs in this gene were associated with IQ. This gene encodes a cytoskeletal coiled-coil protein that affects dystrobrevin localization in axons and might thereby affect axon architecture. rs760761, rs2619522, rs2619538 are the 3 main SNPs that affect what the authors term full-scale IQ. The first 2 derived SNPs reduce IQ while the 3rd one increases IQ, each by about 6-7 points. Again these seem to cause regulatory effects as they are found in non-coding intronic regions. Each allele shows clear population differences: For example in the last SNP the T allele is similar in proportion in both West Africans and White Americans, but is extremely rare in the East Asians.

SNAP25: This gene encodes a protein involved in vesicular fusion, with two coiled coil SNARE modules and cysteines which are palmitoylated. 4 SNPs in the intron-1 of this gene: rs363043, rs353016, rs363039 and rs363050 have an effect of IQ. These SNPs appear to alter transcription factor binding sites and alter the expression pattern of the SNAP-25 gene. Some of these alleles again show dramatic population differences.

NRG1: Neuregulin-1 is a cell-surface protein which is the ligand for the ERBB3 and ERBB4 receptor tyrosine kinases. It induces the expression of acetylcholine receptor and induces Schwann cell proliferation. One variant of it in the promoter region showed reduced IQ and frontal/temporal lobe activity and pre-disposition for pyschosis.

LIMK1:
The LIM domain kinase 1 with two LIM domains fused to a kinase domain, has been implicated in William’s syndrome. Effects on visuo-spatial cognition and the tendency of individuals with LIMK1 deletion to anthropomorphize non-human entities implicate it in both spatial ability and general reconstruction of imagery. Mice with LIMK1 deletion also show altered spatial abilities and fear responses. Its potential interaction with the cytoplasmic tail of NRG1 implicate it in a common pathway with that gene product. This might be explored in the future for a role in intelligence.

RIMS1: Encodes a protein with N-terminal Zn-chelating Rabphilin-effector domain fused to a C-terminal PDZ, and 2 C2 domains. Appears to be important in regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis via the Rab3 GTPase during neurotransmitter release. Importantly, it physically interacts with SNAP-25 which has also been implicated in intelligence and vesicular fusion. Here a mutation in the coding region, resulting in a R844H (gi:2224621) substitution, in turn results in increased IQ, especially verbal IQ [ekanetra, I wonder if you have this mutation!]. This mutation is in the C2 domain and is close to the residues interacting directly with Calcium. We believe that the enhanced RIMS1 IQ phenotype might be linked to altered calcium affinity of the molecule. The down side of this IQ gain is an associated vision defect phenotype. Mice lacking this gene show severely impaired learning and memory

COMT:
catechol O-methyltransferase which is involved in catechol amine degradation has a common polymorphism V158M that has been implicated in cognitive differences with individuals with the M allele performing better. The M allele results in a less active enzyme and concomitantly greater dopamine concentrations, suggesting that its effects are a consequence of dopamine concentration. However, its effect might be relatively subtle. The M/M homozygotes are relative rare globally compared to V/V homozygotes or M/V heterozygotes. However, there is some population differentiation of the variants with the maximum M/M presence in White population and relatively low presence in Chinese/Japanese and intermediate presence in Sub-Saharan Africans.

Further, quantitative trait associations studies have found linkages between IQ and two chromosomal regions namely 2q24.1-31.1 and 6p25.3-22.3. These respectively overlap with chromosomal regions linked with autism and reading disability/dyslexia. Several genes lie in these chromosomal locations that have emerged as potential candidates in other cognitive disorders. E.g. : SLC25A12: autism; NR4A2, DTNBP1, KIF13A, NQO2: schizophrenia; RANBP9: fragile X syndrome; BBS5: Bardet-Biedl syndrome. There are also other uncharacterized candidates in these regions like: KCNH7, Neuritin 1, HTR5A, HTR3A and HTR3B. Thus, there several indications that other genes with a role in individual differences in intelligence might be uncovered in the near future.

Location and function of the gene products of major genes implicated in intelligence (Click to enlarge).

An examination of the major genes implicated in intelligence shows an interesting pattern. 4 out of the 7 allelic variants with an effect on intelligence/cognition affect the regulatory regions, most likely transcription control sites in non-coding regions of the gene. The only known LIMK1 allele with a cognitive effect seems to be a null allele resulting in complete gene deletion. This suggests that a notable fraction of the variation in the genes resulting in intelligence differences is subtle and does not alter protein function. Instead, the chief effects of the variants are predicted to be in changing concentrations or amounts of proteins that are available in within the neuron. Only in two cases (RIMS1 and COMT) do we actually observe a change in protein functional properties, through alteration of the coding region. In at least the latter case the net result seems to be a change in dopamine concentration. These observations suggest that most effects of genetic variation on intelligence can in part be relatively simply modeled a changes in protein or neurotransmitter concentration which either directly affect neuronal architecture (e.g. DTNBP1) or amount of available neurotransmitter or its receptor. This also raises the possibility of relatively easily phenocopying such alterations through non-genetic, biochemical interventions. Thus, intelligence altering drugs, which have been a fascination from the earliest days of Hindu medicine might not be out of place.

Beyond these genes, a recent study (Cochran et al) on the possible genetic determinants for high IQ in the Ashkenazi Jewish population uncovered a series of potential candidate genes. So far there is no evidence for these having a general role in intelligence in association studies. However, as the authors suggest some of this may have a been uniquely selected in a particular Jewish population: elsewhere their negative fitness effects might have eliminated them from the population. The best of these candidates include genes like torsin encoding an AAA+ ATPase, mutated in Torsion dystonia. The mutation appears to affect a glutamate in the helical C-terminal module of the AAA+ domain and might hence affect its target protein interaction, and there by affect protein translocation. The other candidate is CYP11B1 gene which encodes a steroid 11-beta hydroxylase, which is mutated in non-classical congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia but its exact role if any in elevating IQ is unclear. The DNA repair group including BRCA1, the Bloom’s syndrome helicase and some others have also been implicated along with brain-size related genes with related functions such as ASPM and MCPH1. However, at least in the case of the latter two no direct association with IQ was found. However, ASPM and MCPH1 have been linked to the emergence of tonal languages and alphabetic writing, suggesting that in combination with some of the established IQ-affecting genes these and other DNA repair genes could impact cognitive capacity in facets other than that measure by proxies for g.

The case of FADS2: It has been known from earlier studies that breast-feed infants develop significantly higher IQ than non-breastfed infants. However, this increase in IQ due to breast-feeding is dependent on the presence of a particular allelic variant (SNP: rs174575) in the FADS2 gene. This polymorphism is close to a predicted sterol response element and might affect transcription factor binding. Individuals with the more prevalent FADS2 allele in the tested population (mainly White Anglo-Saxon) responded dramatically breast-feeding in terms of IQ, whereas those with the less prevalent allele showed neither IQ elevation nor depression in response breast-feeding. FADS2 encodes a membrane associated delta-6 fatty acid desaturase with a N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain and a C-terminal multi-TM desaturase domain that is involved in the synthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids. It is possible that the activity of this enzyme on precursors derived from breast-milk are critical for generation of specific highly unsaturated fats accumulated in the brain. An earlier association study had linked the intronic SNP rs498793 in the same gene (different from the above one) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This SNP shows dramatic difference between Chinese/Japanese one hand and Africans/Whites on the other. It would be interesting to see if this allele might account for behavioral differences between these ethnic groups, and whether it interacts with other alleles in the same locus. Here again the polymorphisms linked to phenotypic differences are merely involved in regulatory effects rather than changing protein biochemistry.

The case of FADS2 again raises the possibility that dietary supplements of particular fatty acids might be beneficial for development of intelligence. More generally, it shows how environmental factors themselves might uncover a further set of genes that affect development of intelligence.

This finally leads to the politically contentious issue of intelligence difference between different populations, ethnic groups or races. Psychometry has consistently suggested differences in average g as measured by IQ between different populations. The above survey of genetic variation implicated in individual intelligence differences also show marked population differences in their frequencies. This is consistent with a genetic basis of the inter-population differences in intelligence. However, we must keep in mind that we have not exhausted all the genes involved in intelligence differences, nor have exhausted the effects of all possible allelic variants found in different populations. So we cannot yet reconstruct purely ground up a measure of the amount of inter-population intelligence difference using the current molecular data.

The extraordinary case of Comet Holmes

•October 28, 2007 • Leave a Comment
A dhuma-gola was sighted near the head of yayAti, when the kR^iShNa-pakSha moon was passing through kR^ittikA

My friend the AghamarShaNa brought to my attention an extraordinary even this evening: The comet Holmes was visible to naked eye. He mentioned that it was so bright that it changed the shape of Perseus. This comet has a long and colorful history since its discovery on November 6th of 1892 by Holmes using a 12.6 inch from London in the constellation of Andromeda near the famed Galaxy of M31. It was seen by several observers shortly there after and confirmed as a fuzzy naked eye object resembling M31. The striking thing was that after its orbit was calculated it proved to be way past it is perihelion, and it was a short period comet with an orbit within that of Jupiter. It returned as predicted in 1899 and 1906 but was extraordinarily faint, recorded around the 16-17th magnitude. The comet was then lost and never seen. Marsden in 1963 using computational numerical integration managed to calculate its current orbit and showed that since its last observation in 1906 and the upcoming apparition of 1964, the orbital period had increased from 6.86 years to 7.35 years. With this it was recovered again during perihelion at the magnitude of 18 — no where in the range of amateurs like us with really small instruments.

However, in 2007 October it gave a repeat performance, even more spectacularly of the outburst at the time of discovery. Since July when it was seen at mag 14.5 it was fading steadily reaching around the 17th mag, when it began an extraordinary outburst on Oct 24th and had reached the 7th mag. Within that day it climbed dramatically to reach 2.8. When I saw it from behind my kShetra it was around 2.8. The skies are bad here, and the prathama waning moon was up in kR^ittikA. When I began the observations the moon was grazing the tail of the Pleiades. Yet even in these bad skies the comet was visible as the 3rd brightest entity in Perseus after Alpha and Beta Persei. Then seeing it with my binoculars it looked like a sight I have never seen before- a bright circular fuzzball forming a triangle with lambda and delta Persei. Extraordinary was the only word I had for it. It was the first time I was seeing a Jovian comet. The causes for this outburst are unclear but is something that has happened more than once with this comet. Is it some combination of heat build and destabilizing by Jupiter that causes it to puff out dust?

kalashajA’s puruSha called to say that he too had sighted it and was in loss of words to describe it — he said he would send pictures he was taking of it.

Update 28,29/10/2007 : With the moon further away the nucleus of the comet could be clearly distinguished through the binoculars.

Update 1/11/2007: Following the comet from 27/10/2007 one trend is very clear — while the comet has remained at approximately the same magnitude, it has grown more diffuse by the day. On 27/10 it was a dense ball, on 1/11 it had grown in size by almost 65% but retained the same brightness.

The maNDala graph for R^iShi-sharing

•October 27, 2007 • Leave a Comment

The strict R^ishi-sharing graph between the 10 RV maNDalas (click on figure to enlarge)

The blue lines represent jamadagni who is only a co-author of a single sUktaM in maNDala 3.
-Note the dense clustering between 8,9,10,1
-Note the lack of clustering of family books 2,3,4,6,7
-Note tendency of family books 5 and 8 to overlap with each other and with 1,8,9 in particular.

The R^igvedic family books can be divided into two types: 2,3,4,6,7 which have few R^iShis and the majority of sUkta-s are compositions of a single dominant R^ishi. The coherence of these books in terms of the language and refrains, do support the contention that they were indeed composed by in large part by single dominant R^iShis. Book 5 and 8, in contrast, are more composite pieces with several R^iShis belong to a single clan (atri and kaNva respectively) and potentially spanning a large time range. They also incorporate more material from R^iShis of other clans than do the former type of family book.

This seems to suggest two different themes in family book collection: 1) The first one (type-I family books) where a single R^iShi composes a large number of hymns to various deva-s and various ritual contexts. For example, viShvamitra has compositions in the context of various rituals like raising the yupa-stambha (3.8), agni-praNayana(3.27), sAmidheni (3.27), AprI (3.4) and mAdhyandina savana (3.32). On the other hand vasiShTha has hymns to every devatA of the vedic pantheon and likewise encompassing various ritual contexts. This would mean that these maNDala-s were generated by a single author, who was more or less recreating new recitations for a wide swath of the archaic shrauta ritual. 2) In the second theme (type-II family books) seen in 5, 8 we do not see a single author composing a wide range or sukta-s and a given author might cover only one rite. Likewise the author might merely cover one or a few deities in his(her) sUkta-s or produce collective vaishvadeva hymns. For example, vasushruta Atreya composed the AprI for the atri-s (5.5), dyumna-vishvacharShaNi atreya composed their agni praNyana hymn (5.23),and the woman R^iShikA vishvavArA atreyI composed their sAmidheni (5.28). A very prominent R^iShi of this clan the early astronomer shyAvAshva Atreya composed 12 sUkta-s but of them 10 are to the maruts and 2 to savitA. Only atri bhauma the founding father of this clan cover a large number of devatA-s. The atri-s also incorporate sUkta-s of different a~Ngirasa-s, kashyapa-s, a vasiShTha and a possible vaishvamitra. The kANva-s, likewise, incorporate other a~Ngirasa-s clans, bhArgava-s, atreya-s, kashyapa-s and mana maitravaruNi. What this implies is that in the case of book 5 and 8 the tendency was to collate compositions over time by different authors rather than create a whole new set for much of the ritual sequence. They also were not averse to collecting material from gotra-s other than their own and incorporating it into the family book.

maNDala 9 stands out as the hub in the above graph with connections to every other book. However, it is most connected to maNDala-s 8, 1, 10 and 5 and least connected to the type I family books mentioned above. In part while this reflects the fact that all these books have a large number of R^iShi-s, there is also high inter-connectivity between most of these books which are highly connected to 9. This suggests that all these books shared a certain process in their creation and editorial history. This is best illustrated in the case of maNDala 1 and 9 which not only share several authors but also exhibit synteny and similar spatial clustering of authors. The first 4 collections in both maNDala 1 and 9 are : madhuchChandas, medhAtithi, shunaHshepa and hiraNyastUpa. Down the line kaNva, praskaNva, nodhas, parAshara, kutsa, kashyapa, ambarIsha/vArshagirA are clustered together in both 1 and 9. While a similar synteny is not seen with the other books their authors are certainly shared with 9.

In contrast, the main authors of the type I family books do not tend to show any presence, or a very limited presence (mostly in the composite sUkta-s attributed to multiple R^iShis) in book 9, despite their copious single author compositions in their own book. For example, vAmadeva gautama, the main author of book 4, is absent from book 9, with only the ikShvAku emperor trasadasyu from book 4 contributing to book 9. Similarly, gR^itsamada contributes to single fragment of 3 R^ik-s within a much large composite sUktaM (9.86), and likewise vishvAmitra’s and bharadvAja’s only contributions are single tR^icha-s in 9.67 . vasiShTha, who is the most prolific vedic R^iShi too is very limited in his contributions to book 9. It is only the descendants of the type-I family books who contribute to book 9 — thus, we see later members vasiShTha, vishvAmitra, bharadvAja clans here. This distinction also extends to some early authors seen in book 1 : e.g. vasiShTha’s brother agastya and the pUru king paruchChepa daivodAsi– It is only their descendants, rather than themselves who are in book 9. Thus the type I family books and their equivalent upa-maNDala-s of book 1 appear to represent a tradition who hardly composed any specialized pavamAna soma hymns, but only their descendants appear to have taken up this practice.

An examination of the remaining authors of book 9 fills in the remain parts of the puzzle. The single most prolific clan in maNDala 9 are the kAshyapa-s with 34 sUkta-s. They have a solid colinear block of 20 sUkta-s, which includes the AprI sUktaM of their gotra. This suggests that at its heart maNDala 9 began not as a soma maNDala but as the family book of the kAshyapa-s. Their AprI is unique in having pavamAna soma in place of one or both forms of agni- i.e. tanu napAt or narAshaMsa. This suggests ( as also proposed by Shrikant Talageri) that kAshyapa-s had a unique sacrificial tradition based primarily on soma rite rather than the fire rite. It thus appears that they were one of the main popularizers of the pavamAna rite during the evolution of the classical shrauta system.

The remaining prominent authors of the maNDala 9 are of course the atri-s overlapping with book 5 and kANva-s overlapping with book 1 and 8 and a group of “new” bhR^igu-a~Ngiras who do not have a notable presence elsewhere in the R^ig with the exception of 8 and 10. These bhR^igu-a~Ngiras contribute about 30 sUkta-s, distinct from those of the atri-s and kANva-s The atri-s and kANva-s are clearly specifically interacting clans. Both of them were ritualists for the Iranian rulers of the rushama clan (8.3, 8.4, 8.51 and 8.30). The atri-s also mention kaNva-s as being hotar-s in sacrifices with them (5.41.4). Hindu tradition also records the love-hate relationship between the bhR^igu-s and atri-s and the shrauta ritual tradition records a chatur-rAtra rite where an atri initiated the bhR^igu aurva in to a soma ritual. Thus, these clans indeed seem to belong to a linked system. However, a point to note about the “new” bhR^igu-a~Ngiras in book 9 is that, like the atri-s and kAshyapa-s, they preserve several sUkta-s of their ancient ancestors of a much older layer like the great R^iShi ushanA kAvya, who is remembered as one of the early ritualists and his father kavI bhArgava. This suggests that the bhR^igu-s and some of these new a~Ngiras were also ancient soma ritualists. But, unlike the kashyapa-s they also had the fire ritual which is at the heart of the main shrauta tradition.

Several models could explain these observations but we believe the following seems plausible. There were two traditions in the early shrauta period: 1) A compositional mode in which each main director of rites composed a new set of hymns, which he used during his tenure for all his major shrauta actions and recited these with his assistants. 2) The editorial mode in which the director of rites collected hymns from his ancestors and memorized them rather than composing fresh collections for everything. He might supplement these merely with pavamAna litanies or a few new ones to show his standing as a vipra. The former spawned the type-I family books and the latter the type-II family books. We suspect that zarathuShTra represented an Iranian equivalent of the type-I activity.

The type-II authors were also linked with formalization of specialized pavamAna soma rite which became the basis for the soma ritual of the classical soma yAga. It is likely they composed their soma-sUkta-s as lyrics on which sAman-s were sung which became the basis of the collections of the bahiSh pavamAna and Arbhava pavamAna songs. At their core these pavamAna litanies have the ancient soma hymns of ushanA kAvya, kavi bhArgava, early kashyapa-s and manu. They are padded with more recent litanies of the descendants of vasiShTha and vishvAmitra along with those of late a~Ngira clans like the kapi-s and vaikhAnasa-s. This shows that the pavamAna songs of the 3-fold soma pressings in the classical shrauta ritual arose from a process of amalgamation around an ancient core with inclusion of new material to more or less account for all major brahmin families. This amalgamation of ancient R^ishi-s of certain clans and descendants of the type-I family book R^iShi-s suggests that an atri-kAshyapa-bhR^igu-a~Ngira alliance introduced these to the latter at a later point. It was only after the amalgamation did the extant maNDala 9 and 1 emerge and their descendants then put together maNDala 10 by means of their new compositions amalgamated again with other assorted old material. A further round of this was again seen in the creation of the khila of the RV. In doing this they were merely following the precedence set by the atri-s and kaNva-s in composing their family books. It spatial and temporal terms, I suspect the pavamAna transition actually represent a second influx of new Indo-Aryan settlers from the more north-western zones of modern Afghanistan. This was prior to the rise of the kuru-pa~nchAla confederation but probably coeval with the rise of the pUru-s (perhaps under bharata daushyanti).

Post-script
In course of my vedic education I gradually reached these conclusions. I wanted to put this down for long, but then in the middle there was Talageri’s work and that of some white Indologists. Both of these while seeing some of these elements had their own problems. I was mentally distracted by the need to rebutt their theories, but then I thought it was just not worth it. Anyone who studies the veda, and does not dismiss Hindu tradition as meaningless, can see that what I outline above is the essence of the whole thing, and is about as much as we can draw in a cursory analysis. Of course there are numerous specific points concerning specific aspects of the shrauta ritual and to some extant the gR^ihya rituals that we might cover if we feel so inclined in the reminder of our life. All this we fear would become extinct in our clan with me, who is the last somapAyin in my current family.

The gaze of indra

•October 26, 2007 • Leave a Comment
|| sahasrAkShA dhiyaspatI ||
click on image to enlarge

The heart of Anglospheric thought

•October 21, 2007 • Leave a Comment

An interesting recent article brought back certain memories which underlined so clearly the kernel of Anglospheric thought. It was quite ironic: I was staying at that time as a guest in a well-appointed room at the Gonville and Caius College and had some fallow time before meeting a delightful friend, as I was escaping the grip of the kR^ityA that had settled on my head like the vetAla which had seized vikrama. I spent the time examining a voluminous book (A History of the English-Speaking Peoples Since 1900) by an English propagandist Roberts, who clearly inspires the mlechChAdhipati-s like George Bush, Dick Cheney and their Anglo-Saxon henchmen. The book is narrower in its focus than a similarly conceived volume by the American far-right political raconteur Murray. In short while Murray makes the case for Leukospheric supremacy Roberts makes the case for Anglospheric supremacy. Why is all this relevant to a Hindu ? This cannot be fully answered in public, but a simple hint: emulate viShNugupta the luminary of Hindu thought.

To illustrate the central issue of relevance to Hindus in all this let us take the following example:
On 13th April 1919 on the day of the Baisakh festival the English general Dyer attacked unarmed Hindus and Sikhs at Jallianwala Bagh with the “weapons of mass destruction” of that era and killed about 500 of them in the least (some estimates place the numbers much higher). Dyer’s own words are the following:
“I had made up my mind I would do all men to death… It was no longer a question of merely dispersing the crowd, but one of producing a sufficient moral effect from a military point of view not only on those who were present, but more especially throughout the Punjab.” (emphasis added)

His superior, O’Dwyer declared that he had done the right thing. The committee inquiring into the event largely exonerated him by describing his actions as “…an honest but mistaken conception of duty.” The House of Lords approved of his valiant actions in saving the British empire from another “mutiny”. The Britons raised a purse of #26,000 and presented it to Dyer on his return to England with sword in support of his valorous deeds of killing unarmed Hindus. A white American woman sent him #100 hailing him as the protector of white women. Fast-forward to 1997, the mlechCha rAjan Phillip who was visiting Jallianwala Bagh looked a plaque there and commented that casualities listed there were inflated, and Dyer’s son with whom he had served in the English army had told him that they were far less. Then come to 2006, the propagandist Roberts (hailed as historian by the Bush-Cheney Anglo-Saxon junta) defended the massacre of Indians by Dyer as a necessary measure to maintain peace. In fact he is seen paraphrasing Dyer’s own words.

Let it be clear to every Hindu, that a long line of illustrious mlechChas starting from Kipling to Dyer to Churchill to the barbarian prince Phillip to the propagandist Roberts or their admirers from the Bush-Cheney gang have had the same essential view of pagan Hindu — the Anglospheric master from his high pedestal declares his acts as moral and the rest have to agree. You may point to the genocides committed by other Leukospheric peoples, for example Russians or Germans, but the genocides of the Anglosphere are out of bounds for discussion- they are Christian Angels after all.

Yet Manmohan Singh the Sikh ruler of India (yes, Sikhs were victims at Jallianwala Bagh) says in his address at Oxford University:
“Not just by the perceived negative consequences of British imperial rule… ”
“…it is possible for an Indian Prime Minister to assert that India’s experience with Britain had its beneficial consequences too. Our notions of the rule of law, of a Constitutional government, of a free press, of a professional civil service, of modern universities and research laboratories have all been fashioned in the crucible where an age old civilization met the dominant Empire of the day.” [emphasis added]
It is amazing to see how many a Hindu including the PM they have elected have internalized the propaganda of the Anglosphere and even hope to belong to it, as Manmohan goes on the state in his address.

As another example of the Anglospheric narrative on Hindus take the work of Professor Carroll Quigley, one of whose students was Bill Clinton, the puMschali-grAhin and ex-mlechChAdhipati. In his voluminous tome, “Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time”, which was very influential amongst many an American politician he outlines a history of India. Here he paints the Hindus as a depraved mass of imbeciles enslaved by Islam and Isaism. He narrates a history where the Hindu Marathas were brigands and thieves ruining the land through their depredations, when the British brought the rule of law.

Undoubtedly Billy imbibed his teacher’s word well. We hear him say the following in a preface of a recent book by M. Albright: “During my visit to India in 2000, some Hindu militants decided to vent their outrage by murdering 38 Sikhs in cold blood. If I hadn’t made the trip, the victims would probably still be alive. If I hadn’t made the trip, I couldn’t have done my job as president of the United States”.
Apparently he has edited it since, but there is no doubt about what the Anglospheric view on Hindus is.

From Jimmy Watson to the Anglospheric mafia ruling in the backyard they still insist in subtle and not so subtle ways that they are lords of the world. And we continue to buy into that…

kAlikA purANaM

•October 20, 2007 • Leave a Comment

With the holy nine nights under way we decided to talk about the kAlikA purANa. It may be considered a mixture of traditional purANa and a tantra shAstra manual. The purANa part is dominant in the first 45 chapters of the text. The tantra-shAstra portion with a clear spatial connection to the yoni pITha of kAmAkhyA is seen in the remain 45 chapters. Together, the 90 chapters contain 8394 shloka-s. The story frame is in the form of the brAhmaNa-s questioning the bhArgava mArkaNDeya, who in turn narrates the stories as his is usual custom. In the later half it becomes a discourse between sagara and his preceptor the bhArgava aurva.

Chapter 1 contains an account of the emergence of uShA and kAma from brahmA.
Chapter 3 contains a description of the charms of rati.
Chapter 4 contains a description of vasanta.
Chapter 5 contains a description of how viShNumAyA is invoked by brahmA to delude rudra. She is described as yogamAyA. This description is consistent with ekAnaMshA seen in the harivaMsha and they are the same continuous deity. She rides on a lion and has a deadly sword, is dark of complexion like a mass of collyrium and has untied, free-flowing long hair. She is hence kAlI and thus the purANa acquires its name kAlikA as it goes on describe her glories.
Chapter 6 contains the account of shiva’s gaNa-s and also has a notable stava of kAlikA.
Chapter 7-18 contains the satI cycle. It begins with rudra being primed for the life of a gR^ihasta by kAma, followed by dakSha invoking mahAmAyA to be born as his daughter satI and the marriage of satI to shiva. Then dalliance of shiva and satI, followed by the dakSha yAga events leading to the death satI and the destruction of dakSha’s yAga. The final part narrates the emergence of the shakti-pITha-s from satI-s a~Nga-s. The peculiar twist of the kA.P is that brahmA, viShNu and Saturn enter into satI-s corpse and break it up into pieces. The involvement of Saturn in the tale suggests its relatively recent provenance.
Chapter 19-23 brahmA narrates various tales to rudra like that of arundhati the wife of vasiShTha, the conflict of dakSha and chandra over his nakShatra daughters, origin of tIrtha-s like chandrabhAga and shipra.
Chapter 24-29 material typical of the sarga section of purANa. Chapter 25 mentions the origin of the varAha.
Chapter 30 contains a stuti of viShNu, followed by shiva assuming the sharabha form to battle the varAha. sharabha defeats the varAha
Chapter 31 contains the famous paurANIc motif of the origin of various yaj~nA~Nga-s from the different parts of the varAha (parallels an orthologous paragraph in many texts).
Chapter 32-35 more sarga material, the mastyAvatara of viShNu, episodes of unexpected pralaya-s, recovery of the world after such a pralaya and rudra relinquishing the sharabha form after saving the world from the varAha-s ravages.
Chapter 36-40 The partial cycle of naraka: His birth from the varAha and pR^ithivi, his coronation in pragjyotiSha, his tapasya to obtain power and his rise to stupendous power.
Chapter 40-45 The pArvatI cycle: The birth of kAlI as pArvatI to himavAn, the attempt of kAmadeva to delude shiva and his destruction, pArvatI’s tapasya and encounter with shiva coming to test her and their marriage.

The uttara-kANDa or the tantric manual section of the kAlikA purANa comprises the remaining part of the text. It is a collection of vidhi-s and prayogas fitted into the narrative of aurva to student king sagara.
Chapter 46 The narrative of the emanations of bhairava-s and vetAla-s from rudra. It also contains a stava to sha~Nkara.
Chapter 47-50 The incarnation of shiva and umA as chandrashekhara and tArAvatI. It narrates a bizarre tale of how shiva and pArvatI fought and pArvatI ran away from him. shiva saw sAvitrI and thought it was umA and went to her full of passion. She cursed him to be born as a man. To get back to shiva, umA incarnated as tArAvatI. However, chandrashekhara and tArAvatI did not remember that they were respectively the deva and devI. A lecherous brahmin named kapota tried to have sex with tArAvatI when he saw her coming out of a river after a swim. She evaded him by sending her sister, but he figured it out and laid a spell on her that she would be violated by a hideous bone-ornamented being. She mentioned this to chandrashekhara, who tried to protect her by placing her on high terrace. But duly, rudra assuming his original form inseminated her and two terrifying vAnara-headed bhUta-s were born to tArAvatI. chandrashekhara thought that a demon had raped his wife but a brAhmaNa informed them it was shiva and he himself was shiva. They closed their eyes and realized their sAyujya with the shivau. But once they opened their eyes they continued life as a mAnava-s. They had an additional 3 sons whom chandrashekhara favored over the original two vAnara-faced sons. But it was they who became bhuta-gaNeshvara-s of rudra’s hordes.

Chapter 51 The tantric vidhi of vasiShTha for the worship of the pa~nchabrahma mUrti-s of rudra.
Chapter 52-56 The vaiShNavI tantra or mahAmAyA-kalpa. Expounds the vaiShNAvI mahAmantra: OM hrIM shrIM vaiShNAvyai namaH | It also describes the worship of the AvarNa-s of vaiShnavI with 64 yoginIs and 8 yoginIs. These yoginIs are distinct from those of other AvaraNa-s and include devatA-s like guptadurgA, bhuvaneshvarI, saptakoTeshvarI, vindhyavAsinI etc (in the 64 circuit) and those headed by skandamAtA in the 8-circuit. The animal and human sacrifices for the yoginI-s of vaiShNavI are also detailed. 56 gives a devI-kavacha.
Chapter 57 Expounds the kAmarAja mantra as per the uttara-tantra.
Chapter 58 Expounds the worship of mahAmAyA-yoganidrA-ekAnamshA as the primary deity of kAmAkhyA.
Chapter 59 chaNDikA pujA vidhi. Describes the worship of chaNDikA with her AvarNa of 7 terrifying yoginI-s: ugrachaNdA, prachaNDa, chanDogrA, chaNDanAyikA, chaNDA, chaNDavatI, chAmuNDA.
Chapter 60 durgA tantra. Describes the mahiShamardini pujA performed on mahAnavamI.
Chapter 61 The procedures for the worship of the 18 handed ugrachaNDA on the aShTami, the 16-handed bhadrakAlI on the navamI of navarAtrI and the 10-handed jaya-durgA on the vijaya-dashami day.
Chapter 62 The kAmAkhyA-pujA-tantra. Details the procedures for the worship of the goddess in the form of the great yoni at kAmAkhyA.
Chapter 63 The tripurA-tantra. Describes the worship of baTuka-bhairava and tripurA along with her yoginI-s as per the lineage of the shrIkula path.
Chapter 64 The kAmeshvarI tantra. Expounds the worship of kAmesvarI in the ShaTkoNa yantra in the midst of the triad of pITha-s of jAlandhara, oDDIyAna and kAmarUpa as per shrIkula tradition.
Chapter 65 The shAradA-tantra. Expounds the worship of the 10-armed lion-borne vajra-shAradA, especially in the context of the navarAtrI rite.
Chapter 66 Descriptions of namaskAra-s and mudras.
Chapter 67 Descriptions of animal sacrifices. The alternative of making piShTa-pashu-s is also suggested and detailed (e.g. with barley flour).
Chapter 68 Making of Asana-s for installation of mUrtI-s of devI-s. Metal, stone, wood, and hide Asana-s are described, as well as decorations with gems.
Chapter 69 Making of vastra-s for the goddess from cotton, wool, silk and flax is described. Then the specifications for dhUpa (incense), dIpa (lamps), flowers and a~njana-s (ointments) are provided.
Chapter 70 The preparation of naivedya-s is described, with injunctions for what are bhojya.
Chapter 71 The performance of circumambulations and the final namaskAra-s are described. Thus, chapters 66-71 cover the details of ShoDashopachAra pUjA for the shakti.
Chapter 72 A sectarian praise of kAmAkhyA with an anti-viShNu slant. The goddess garuDagAmI throws viShNu into the sea, and by worshiping kAmAkhyA he is relieved of his troubles. The kAmAkhyA kavachaM is provided.
Chapter 73 The mAtR^ikA nyAsa for kAmAkhyA worship method is detailed.
Chapter 74 various mudra-s, yantras and prayogas for sundry purposes are described.
Chapter 75 The purashcharaNa, kavacha and pUjAvidhAna of tripura-bhairavI is provided here.
Chapter 76 The description of the types of mantra-s and vasiShTha expounds kAmAkhyA pUjA.
Chapter 77-79 A geographic dilation on the pITha of kAmAkyA and the holy spots in its environs.
Chapter 80  A description of the worship of other deva-s, particularly concentrating on the worship of viShNu as ordained in the pA~ncharAtra tantras.
Chapter 81 A bizarre tale regarding the prevalence of vAmAchAra worship is narrated: rudra was asked by vasiShTha to bring kAmarUpa in the control of yama. shiva sent ugratArA and his gaNa-s to drive everyone out of kAmarupa. In the process they tried to drive out the powerful brAhmaNa vasiShTha too. He cursed the gaNa-s that they would become unclean mlechCha-s and shiva would become mlechCha-priya. He cursed ugratArA that she would only receive vAmAchara worship. As a consequence the whole of kAmarUpa was occupied by barbarous mlechCha-s and the pA~ncharAtra tantras were lost in the land. Instead the vAmAchara tantras became the norm, which eventually bore fruit for its practitioners. The tale also mentions how lauhitya, the son of brahmA, flooded the region in the form of a river.
Chapter 82 Another tale of the birth the river lauhitya as the son of shantanu and amoghA. He was placed in a Himalayan lake but he grew in size and burst forth flooding the plains “like a second sea”. His waters cleansed rAmo bhArgava of the sin of killing his mother.
Chapter 83 The narrative of the exploits of rAmo bhArgava.
Chapter 84-85 A description of rAjadharma and dharma shAstra. This section is commonly cited in smR^iti manuals from eastern India.
Chapter 86 The important shAkta ablution and pUja performed on a tR^itiya in the constellation of puShya is described.
Chapter 87 The performance of the indra festival on the dvAdashi of the month of prauShTapada is described. A medieval version of the vedic festival of the erection of the dhvaja of indra is detailed.
Chapter 88 More rAjadharma and injunctions for a sacrifice to viShNu on a jyaiShTha dashami and a puja of lakShmI on shrIpa~nchamI are provided.
Chapter 89 The tale of khANDava dahana. The tale of the sons of the bhairava.
Chapter 90 A tale of the sons of the vetAla. The praise of the kAlikA purANa.

iti parisamAptaM

 
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